Bromide Dominance Theory
How Competitive Inhibition Causes Iodine Deficiency
A bromide dominance condition may develop when bromide, acquired through environmental, occupational, iatrogenic or dietary exposure, causes bromide levels in the body to rise high enough to inhibit iodine enzyme metabolism.
Iodine supplementation alters the competitive bromide-iodine relationship causing bromide excretion. Thus, bromide dominance is diminished and proper iodine enzyme metabolism may be restored.
In the toxic 21st Century, these questions must be raised:
- Would we have such a severe iodine deficiency without bromide dominance?
- If iodine deficiency is the underlying cause of many diseases, is bromide "the underlying cause of the underlying cause?"
- Is bromide dominance creating a public health crisis?
Where Does Bromide Dominance Come From?
Bromide is an insidious, additive used in many common products, and as a pesticide. Because of the sheer amount of bromide-supplemented products, exposure to this man-made additive has caused a depletion of iodine in human populations. Studies in lab animals provide alarming evidence that even small amounts of bromide exposure can be toxic. (1)
What products contain bromide?
Currently, bromide is found in pesticides (methyl bromide), some bread products (potassium bromate), brominated vegetable oil that may be added to citrus-flavored drinks, hot tub cleansers, certain asthma inhalers and prescription drugs, plastic products, some personal care products, and some fabric dyes.
Effects of Bromide on the Organs
Iodine depletion weakens the thyroid and other organs. (2)(3)(4)(5)(6) In individuals where the bromide-iodine ratio is less, bromide may not be problematic.
Elevated bromide levels have been implicated in every thyroid disease, from simple hypothyroidism to auto-immune diseases to thyroid cancer. Malenchenko found bromide levels 50 times higher in thyroid cancer than normal thyroid tissue. (7)
Rats fed even the minimal amount of bromine expected to be encountered in the environment underwent goiter-like changes (8), an arguable case of bromide dominance. In the FIRE project, exposing rats to the brominated flame retardant compound, bromocyclodecane, showed consistent effects on the thyroid hormone axis, including decreased T4. Thyroid gland cells
have increased size and larger nuclei, indicating increased synthetic activity. (9)
With enhanced intake of bromide, fully one-third of the iodine content in the thyroids of rats was replaced by bromide. (10)
Skin biopsied from a woman who had been on bromide-containing sedatives for nearly four years found increased bromide in normal skin and three times that in an affected skin lesion. (11)
An infant administered a syrup containing sodium bromide developed vegetative lesions on the face and scalp. (12)
Technicians exposed to brominated compounds for prolonged periods developed multiple cherry angiomas on the trunk and extremities. (12)
The psychiatry literature abounds with cases of elevated bromide levels being implicated in mental conditions from depression to schizophrenia. (14)(15)(16) As Guy Abraham, MD, asks, "How many people with misdiagnosed bromism are currently treated with psychiatric drugs?"(17) Bromide was used to suppress women's sex drive in the 1950s.
Potassium bromate, a bread additive, is known to cause renal damage and permanent deafness in animals and man. (18) In the FIRE project, the most relevant effect on exposing rats to 28 days to the brominated flame retardant compound, tetrabromobisphenol-A, was hearing. Specifically, the lower frequency range was affected . (19)
The ability of bromate to cause cancer, especially kidney cancer, is a significant health concern. (20) The gene expression in kidneys in rats given a high dose 100-week potassium bromate in their drinking water showed marked gene expression difference from the lower non-cancer dose. The high dose kidney gene expression resembled an adenoma-like expression pattern. (21)
BROMIDE IN PRODUCTS
Potassium bromate as an additive to most commercial bread and baked goods probably provides the most egregious contribution to bromide overload in Western cultures.
Bromated flour is product "enriched" with potassium bromate. Some commercial bakers claim they use bromated flour because it yields dependable results, and it makes more elastic dough which can stand up to bread hooks and other commercial baking tools. (22) However, Pepperidge Farm manages to use only unbromated flour with excellent results.
NOTE ON BANNING POTASSIUM BROMATE IN BREAD:
The UK banned bromate in bread in 1990.
Canada banned bromate in bread in 1994. (23)
Proposal P230 in Australia: Food Regulation Ministerial Council (FSANZ) still has not finalized its July 2007 proposal to mandate iodized salt in breads, breakfast cereals and biscuits.
Back in 1999, the Center for Science in the Public Interest petitioned the FDA to prohibit the use of potassium bromate, charging that the FDA has known for years that bromate causes cancer in lab animals, but has failed to ban it. (24) As of September 2007, the US FDA responded to Breast Cancer Choices inquiry with the statement, " Potassium Bromate is still listed as a safe additive."
When drinking water containing bromide is exposed to ozone, bromate ion, a powerful oxidizing agent, is formed. Two significant recalls of drinking water involving bromate have ccurred: Wegmann's Food You Feel Good About Spring Water Recall in 2006, and Coca-Cola's Dasani in 2004. (25)
TOOTHPASTE, MOUTHWASH AND GARGLES
Potassium bromate is an antiseptic and astringent in toothpaste, mouth and gargles. Very toxic if taken internally. May cause bleeding and inflammation of gums in toothpaste. (26)
BROMIDE IN FLAME RETARDANTS
Flame retardants reduce the flammability of a wide variety of commercial and household products. Some brominated home retardants migrate from the products in which they are used and are entering the environment and people. (27)
PERSONAL PRODUCTS AND SOME COSMETICS
Sodium bromate in Products: Permanent Waves, Hair Dyes, Textile Dyes Sodium bromate is in permanent wave neutralizers, hair dye material, and the textile dyeing process. (28) Benzalkonium is used as a preservative in some cosmetics. (29)
Breast Cancer Choices is indebted to the pioneering bromide research of Guy E. Abraham, MD, as well as the clinical and intellectual contributions of David Brownstein, MD, and Jorge Flechas, MD.
(1) Vobecky M et al., Interaction of Bromine with Iodine in the Rat Thyroid Gland at Enhanced Bromide Intake, Biol Trace Elem Res 1996.
(2) Velicky J et al., The Effect of Bromide on the Ultrastructure of Rat Thyrocytes, Ann Anat 2004.
(3) Pavelka S et al., Bromide Kinetics and Distribution in the Rat. II Distribution of Bromide in the Body, Biol Trace Res 2000.
(4) Velicky J et al., Long Term Action of Potassium Bromide on the Rat Thyroid Gland, Acta Histochem 1998.
(5) Velicky J et al., Potassium Bromide and the Thyroid Gland of the Rat: Morphology and Immunochemistry 1997.
(6) Vobecky M et al., Interaction of Bromine with Iodine in the Rat Thyroid Gland at Enhanced Bromide Intake, Biol Trace Elem Res 1996.
(7) Malenchenko AF et al., The Content and Distribution of Iodine, Chlorine and Bromide in the Normal and Pathologically Changed Thyroid Tissue, Med Radiol 1984.
(8). Velicky J et al., Potassium Bromide and the Thyroid Gland of the Rat: Morphology and Immunochemistry, RIA and INAA Analysis, Ann Anat 1997.
(9) www.credocluster.info Issue 6, July 2006
(10) Vobecky M et al., Interaction of Bromine with Iodine in the Rat Thyroid Gland at Enhanced Bromide Intake, Biol Trace Elem Res 1996.
(11) Hubner K et al., Skin Bromide Content and Bromide Excretion in Bromoderma Tuberosum, Arch Derm Res 1976.
(12) Bel S et al., Vegetant Bromoderma in an Infant, Pediatric Dermatology 2001.
(13) Cohen A et al., Cherry Angiomas Associated with Exposure to Bromides, Dermatology 2001.
(14) Horowitz BZ et al., Bromism from Excessive Cola Consumption, Clinical Toxicology 1997.
(15) Levin M., Transitory Schizophrenia Produced by Bromide Intoxication, Am J Psychiatry 1946.
(17) Abraham G., The Combined Measurement of the Four Stable Halides by the Ion-Selective Electrode Procedure Following Their Chromatographic Separation on a Strong Anion Exchange Resin: Clinical Application, The Original Internist 2006.
(18) Morizono T et al., The Effects of Cetrimide and Potassium Bromate on the Potassium Ion Concentration in the Inner Ear Fluid of the Guinea Pig, Physiol Bohemoslov 1988.
(19) www.credocluster.info, Issue 6 2006.
(21) Geter D et al., Kidney Toxicogenomics of Chronic Potassium Bromate Exposure in F334 Male Rats, EIMS Meta Data Report 2006.
(27) www.credocluster.info, Issue 6 2006.
Lynne Farrow is a whistle blower. She is also a
journalist, researcher, former college professor and speaker. Her own
experience with breast cancer led to her discovery that someone had
stolen a medicine with proven benefits reaching back 15,000 years. A
medicine that not only helped her, but has helped millions. She
currently serves as the Director of BreastCancerChoices, Inc.,
a nonprofit organization dedicated to the scrutinizing and reporting of
the evidence for breast cancer procedures and treatments. As the
founder of the Breast Cancer Think Tank, she created a forum for
professionals, patients and lay-people to report any new findings about
breast cancer as well as review old information with a friendly spirit
of cooperation, challenge and debate. Lynne is the editor of IodineResearch.com,
where she has compiled materials for both beginning and advanced iodine
investigators. From obscure studies on iodine and the brain, to pieces
for the beginner, looking for the widely accepted Iodine Protocol, the
iodine research website is a wealth of information. Lynne Farrow is the
author of the best-selling book, The Iodine Crisis. For
comments or for reprint permission contact:
firstname.lastname@example.org or Breast Cancer Choices, Inc., PO Box
1567, Amagansett, NY 11930. All art work copyrighted by Lynne Farrow.
Original article can be found at